New cosmological map offers answers on dark energy

Currently, one of the greatest mysteries of current science has been dark energy, of which the only thing that is known so far is that it constitutes an invisible entity that encompasses the entire universe and that causes the form and separation between galaxies.

One of the simplest definitions regarding this element is that it is a cosmological constant resulting from the energy present in the vacuum of space itself.

However, many physics experts consider that this explanation is not convincing because it lacks a description that satisfies the questions generated around the nature of dark energy, as well as the current rate of expansion of the universe.

It is here where the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Study (eBOSS) comes to offer answers to these doubts through a work composed of 23 publications, some of which are being studied by experts in physics, thus achieving the largest three-dimensional cosmological map. never created.

So far the only method used to detect the presence of dark energy has been through observations of the distant universe, which have made it possible to determine that the further away a galaxy is, the younger it appears. This, due to the time it took for the light emanating from them to be captured by the telescopes, which could have been millions or billions of years.

In this way it is possible to measure the different distances and cosmic times present in space, thus helping to decipher how quickly the expansion of the universe occurs.

More than two million galaxies and cusars were measured thanks to the use of the telescope Sloan Digital Sky Survey, achieving in the end a map that covers around 11 billion years of unexplored cosmic history with which it will be possible to obtain a learning of dark energy like never before.

After the measurements carried out, the team determined that around 69% of the energy in the universe is composed of dark energy.

Controversy over cosmic expansion

The results achieved with the measurements also allowed a better understanding of some recent insights associated with the expansion rate of the current universe and the geometry of space.

In this sense, when contrasting the observations made with the study of the universe during his childhood, it was possible to verify the presence of cracks in the description of its evolutionary process.

With the measurement carried out by the eBOSS, a current expansion rate of the universe of 10% less was obtained with respect to the value found with the direct methods of measuring distances between nearby galaxies.

A possible explanation for this discrepancy could be due to the trail left by a previously unknown form of matter from the early universe, also known as early dark energy which is thought to be present during the initial formation stage of the universe and which may have affected the rate of cosmic expansion.

With regard to the geometry of space, recent studies of the cosmic microwave background suggested that it could have a curved and not a flat shape, a fact that is consistent with the widely accepted theory of the Big Bang, but not with the eBOSS study. , which determined that space is actually flat.

Despite all these revelations, it is likely that doubts remain within the cosmological community regarding dark energy, the flat nature of space, and its controversial current expansion rates.

All that remains is to move forward with larger and more detailed maps of the universe in an attempt to find conclusive answers to each of these questions. Currently there are several future projects known that aim to measure at least 10 times more galaxies than the study described here.

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